VSM / Efficiency / Freeze-thaw stability

Freeze-thaw stability

Freeze-thaw stability is the ability of water-saturated concrete to retain strength and maintain integrity through multiple freeze-thaw cycles. The main destroying factor here is expanding water, which penetrates into concrete’s macropores, while the main factor of frost-induced damage resistance is the pore geometry.

Nowadays the most wide-spread way to ensure the required freeze-thaw stability of structures is changing the nature of porosity with the help of air-entraining additives. These additives create 4-6% of very small spare pores that are not filled with water during standard saturation, but filled under pressure of freezing water. Nevertheless it does not guarantee that even correctly prepared concrete mix with required air content will ensure high freeze-thaw stability and consistently high quality, which are dependant on several conditions, including transportation, placing and compaction.

Introduction of VSM-structuring component into the cement system allows to change closed porosity parameters by increasing the concentration of small pores, reducing the distance between them, as well as the number and dimensions of capillary pores. Thus VSM significantly increases the density of cement matrix and significantly increases frost resistance of concrete.